WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a [SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC] and to secure to all its citizens: 

JUSTICE, social, economic and political; 

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; 

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all 

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the 2 [unity and integrity of the Nation]; 


Simply means

The Preamble is basically the introduction to the constitution. It sums up the essence of the constitution.

N A Palkhivala, a constitutional expert, referred to the Preamble as the ‘Identity card of the Constitution’.

The Preamble has been amended in 1976 by the 42nd Amendment which added the words ‘socialist’, ‘secular’, and ‘integrity’ to it.

The Preamble gives 4 components:

  1. Source of the authority of the Constitution: it mentions that the constitution derives its power from the people of India.
  2. Nature of the Indian State: it says India is a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, and republican State.
  3. Objectives of the Constitution: it gives the objectives as – justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity.
  4. Constitution date of adoption: 26th November 1949.

The constitution has many borrowed features. The country’s founding fathers were wise enough to borrow good features from different nations and mold a constitution that best suits India



1. Name and territory of the Union.—

(1) India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.

[(2) The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule.]

(3) The territory of India shall comprise—

(a) the territories of the States;

[(b) the Union territories specified in the First Schedule; and]

(c) such other territories as may be acquired

What are Union Territories?

Union Territories (UTs) are federal territories and are administered by the Union Government of India. They are also known as centrally administered territories. In the Union Territories, Lieutenant Governors (LGs) are appointed by the President of India. The LGs serve as the UT administrators.

India currently has 8 Union Territories (UTs)


Andaman and Nicobar,


Dadra and Nagar Haveli and

Daman and Diu,

Jammu and Kashmir,


Lakshadweep, and


India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. 

In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive. The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. 

There are 28 states and 8 Union territories in the country. Union Territories are administered by the President through an Administrator appointed by him/her. From the largest to the smallest, each State/UT of India has a unique demography, history and culture, dress, festivals, language etc. 

ARTICLE – 2 Admission or establishment of new States

Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or establish, new States on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.

It simply means to establish or make new states or admit into the Union it is done by the parliament by passing a law.

ARTICLE – 3 Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States.—Parliament may by law—

(a) form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any State;

(b) increase the area of any State;

(c) diminish the area of any State;

(d) alter the boundaries of any State;

(e) alter the name of any State: 1

 [Provided that no Bill for the purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament except on the recommendation of the President and unless, where the proposal contained in the Bill affects the area, boundaries, or name of any of the States, the Bill has been referred by the President to the Legislature of that State for expressing its views thereon within such period as may be specified in the reference or within such further period as the President may allow and the period so specified or allowed has expired.]

3 [Explanation I.—In this article, in clauses (a) to (e), “State” includes a Union territory, but in the proviso, “State” does not include a Union territory. Explanation II.—The power conferred on Parliament by clause (a) includes the power to form a new State or Union territory by uniting a part of any State or Union territory to any other State or Union territory.]

ARTICLE – 4 Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental, and consequential matters.

(1) Any law referred to in article 2 or article 3 shall contain such provisions for the amendment of the First Schedule and the Fourth Schedule as may be necessary to give effect to the provisions of the law and may also contain such supplemental, incidental and consequential provisions (including provisions as to representation in Parliament and in the Legislature or Legislatures of the State or States affected by such law) as Parliament may deem necessary

(2) No such law as aforesaid shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.

Difference between State and Union Territory

  • While the Indian States enjoy a federal relationship with the Union Government with the division of legislative and executive powers, in the case of a UT, it is more of a unitary relationship with the Union Government as all the legislative and executive powers reside with the Government of India.
  • A State is a constituent division and has its own elected government that has the powers to frame laws while a Union Territory is a small administrative unit and is ruled by the Union Government except for Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, and Puducherry.
  • A Governor is the constitutional head of the State while the President of India is the executive head of the Union Territory. Also, the administrator’s position is quite distinct from the position of a Governor of a State. He/She does not have the discretion accorded to the Governor, who is an independent position under the Constitution. The administrator is an agent of the central government.
  • The Chief Minister elected by the people administers the State while the Union Territory is administered by an administrator or Lieutenant Governor appointed by the President of India.
  • States enjoy autonomous powers while the Union Territories do not have autonomous powers.



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